First Language , 15, — CrossRef Google Scholar. Boscolo, P. The use of information in expository text writing. Pontecorvo, M.
Orsolini, B. Birge, and L. Resnick Eds.
Play as a Mechanism of Promoting Emergent Literacy among Young Children: The Indian Context
Hillsdale N. J: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar. Brenneman, K. Cognitive Development , 11 , — Bryant, P. Applied Psycholinguistics , 11 , — Bus, A. Mothers reading to their 3-year-olds: The role of mother-child attachment security in becoming literate. Byrne, B. The foundation of literacy. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Casalis, S. Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read French: A longitudinal study.
Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal , 12 , — Chaney, C. Language development, metalinguistic awareness, and emergent literacy skills of 3year-old children in relation to social class. Applied Psycholinguistics 15 , — Chartier, A. Reading, writing: Text producing. Corcoran Nielsen, D. Effects of literacy environment on literacy development of kindergarten children. The Journal of Educational Research , 89 , 5, — Cox, B. Reading Research Quarterly , 32 , 34— Crain-Thoreson, C. Do early talkers become early readers?
Linguistic precocity, preschool language and emergent literacy. Development Literacy , 28, — Dickinson, D. Interrelationships among prereading and oral language skills in kindergartners from two social classes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 2 , Not by print alone: Oral language supports for early literacy development. Lancy Ed. Wesport, Conn: Praeger. Reading Research Quarterly , 29 , — Edwards, P. Designing a collaborative model of family involvement in literacy: Researchers, teachers, and parents work together.
Ehri, L. Learning to read and learning to spell are one and the same, almost. Perfetti Google Scholar. Rieben, and M. Fayol Eds. Learning to spell pp. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Elbro, C. The role of morpheme recognition and morphological awareness in dyslexia.
Annals of Dyslexia , 46 , — Elster, C. Fereiro, E. Literacy before schooling. New York Heinemann. Ferreiro, E. Orsolint, B. How children interpret the doubling of letters in writing. Frith, U. Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. Patterson, J. Marshall and M Coltheart Eds. London: Erlbaum. In Odisha, an east Indian state, children play with toys made of jute materials, while children living in the remotest village of Nandubar in Maharashtra, a west Indian state, have toys made out of wooden twigs, sticks etc. Children can connect with their heritage through traditional games and this has a deep lifelong positive impact on their learning.
The benefits of independent reading and writing
Children have been observed to play in diverse settings. Regardless of city, suburban, or rural settings, throughout the world, children play. If they grow up in an agrarian economy and accompany their mothers into the fields, they find ways to play within that environment, and there are reports that mothers who work in such settings also find ways to make the time with their children pass in playful ways [ 20 ].
Children play whether they live in rural or urban settings; belong to rich or poor families. One of the most common essentials of childhood across cultures is play. It is also important for early childhood educators to recognize the importance of play in the lives of young children in order to make use of play as a means of promoting cultural awareness.
It is important to understand the relationship of play and cultural diversity as a large population of young children belonging to culturally diverse backgrounds are entering early educational setups. It is through play that children learn about the world around them and learn about their own and other cultural values.
Play helps children understand and enhance a positive awareness of individual differences and cultural diversity of other children around them. Thus, play experiences provide an excellent way to teach children about differences among communities and negate any negative perceptions or stereotypes. Playing games has always been an exciting and the most loving part of growing up for us.
Numerous times we fondly recollect the happiness experienced while playing childhood games. Most of us have definitely played traditional games when we were young, going to the terrace or outside on the streets or nearby park to play with our friends, was the most enjoyable part of our daily routine. Playing traditional games have always brought children together, encouraging teamwork and social interaction. Team games like gilli danda, kho-kho, encourages children to develop maneuvers to strategize and win the game. Children also have an immense love for stories and lullabies.
Stories help in creating an enchanting and delightful world for young children and help them in learning nuances of life. This further helps in encouraging positive beliefs and attitudes towards diversity including people from different religion, communities, ethnicities and regions. Folk-tales or folk-stories are constructed and told in captivating ways, and they carry huge entertainment prowess.
Diversity exists in terms of stories considering the Indian setting and cultures they have. A common version of any story entails characters—human or animal—with the simple structure of a beginning, highlights, and conclusion. Often, these stories take shape of puzzles, with leading questions for children to express and solve it and further facilitates moral values among them. Almost all children are motivated by the suspense entailed in the stories, the characters and situations they are already familiar with. Children also learn to pay attention and to follow instructions, when the levels of stories extend from simple to complex.
Moreover, many folk-tales, although essentially similar in situation, have been adapted in specific languages and therefore provide children with an opportunity to expand and learn their first language. Through the folk-tale activities, children use their short and long-term memory, exercise abstract thinking, and gain collective problem-solving skills [ 21 ]. Storytelling when narrated to children in various ways can Enhance intercultural understanding and communication among young children Figure 1. While listening to folktales and traditional lullabies, children participate actively, rather than listening passively.
Children enjoy stories which are dramatic, vivid and involve situations that they have not heard about. Narrating stories and forming conversations around the characters and things in it, is the oldest form of imparting education about culture, family values and traditions. People around the world have always told tales as a way of passing down their cultural beliefs, traditions and history to future generations. We all have a story to tell and a drive to tell it.
In India, children generally go out and play with their friends or cousins on the streets or nearby parks. These street games have been played by previous generations as children. Parents or grandparents often narrate stories and share their experiences of playing these games as young children. The origin of Kancha can be marked out to the early days of mankind.
Kancha also known as Goti is an Indian traditional game which is mostly played by children and is cherished and fondly remembered by people of all ages. Kanchas are absolute fun to play with. The objective of this game is to hit a few marbles on the ground with your own marbles using a particular technique. Whoever is successful in hitting the targets takes the marbles of all other players and is the winner.
It is believed to be more than a thousand years old — dating back to the Mauryan Dynasty [ 22 ]. Gilli danda is played using two small wooden sticks which can either be prepared at home or with the help of the carpenter. While gilli is small, about 3 inches in length, the danda is 2 feet long with tapering ends, serving as a bat. The game is usually played in teams making a metre diameter circle on the ground and an oval shaped hole is dug in the centre of the circle and the Gilli is placed across the hole.
The games allow the players to develop exceptionally good hand-eye coordination, ability to catch and strong wrists. Kho kho is a traditional game that originated in Maharashtra one of the Indian western state Figure 4. The game hosts two teams, each containing 12 members, out of which 9 play at a time.
The purpose of the game is to tag all the opponents in the team and the team with the shortest time to do so, wins. The game is one of the most popular sports in India and is enthusiastically played among children and adults alike. Besides the obvious health benefits, the game helps to propel sportsman spirit and camaraderie among the players. Since the game involves running, good for cardiovascular system. Hence, a kho kho game can help with a plethora of things. This popular game is also played in other countries and is loved by all. In India it is called Stapu Hindi , Nondi Tamil , in Spain and some Latin American countries, it is rayuela, although it may also be known as golosa or charranca.
Ludo is a great platform to reinforce the pre-number concept counting, colors, and shapes among young children. And just like any other game, the benefits of playing Ludo go beyond learning math. The benefits of the game include sharpening the concentration and enhancing the presence of mind. They also ensure the improvement in the focus and dedication of the child, this allows children to work on their eye-hand coordination, judgment skills, calculation as well.
These games improve the concentration power of the player and further enhance their focus. Children also obtain better understanding of numbers and number related concepts like counting, sequencing, addition and subtraction. By grouping, regrouping, adding and reducing pebbles, children learn to do skip count of two, three, and four and so on and thus eventually learn multiplication tables. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.
Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Donna Farland-Smith. Edited by Jaime Serra-Olivares. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Exposure to the alphabet and caregiver facilitation of developmentally appropriate alphabetic knowledge help children acquire this component of emergent literacy. Emergent literacy, like all areas of development, does not develop in a vacuum.
The home environment of very young children, while undeniably important, was not linked directly to the literacy skills of 6- or 7-year-olds. Specifically, literacy success in older children has been linked to higher family socio-economic status, higher maternal education and IQ, larger parental vocabulary and more complex parental language, and more books and literacy materials in homes. Koppenhaver, Pierce, Steelman, and Yoder described the contexts within which communication and literacy develop for children with disabilities.
These contexts are also described in Handout E. They adapted this description from Teale and Sulzby The communicative context includes the linguistic and nonlinguistic interactions of children and adults. The communicative context and the interactions occurring within it dictate whether or not children will become familiar with the characteristics of language and understand the connection between spoken and written language.
The situational context encompasses not only the communicative context but, more broadly, the availability of literacy and communication materials, opportunities for literacy and communication experiences, and the literacy and communication skills of adults and other children in living and learning environments. The sociocultural context includes societal and cultural values, expectations, beliefs, and resources regarding communication and literacy.
Additionally, it encompasses the other two contexts. The three contexts—communicative, situational, and sociocultural—influence communication, language, and literacy development because the opportunities afforded children are influenced by their interactions with others, the physical environments in which they live and learn, and the attitudes, expectations, and beliefs that society holds for them as potential learners.
These relationships are illustrated graphically in Figure 2. Figure 2. Model of oral and written language development. Amber is feeling a little full from tasting so many good samples that were available at the store. While her mother puts away the groceries, Amber brings her grandfather one of her braille-print books about different types of food. Her grandfather reads the rhyming print in a singsong voice as he skims his fingers over the braille dots. She chimes in frequently with the repetitive line when her grandfather pauses at the end of each page.
The communicative context included the use of a special reading voice, i. To facilitate emergent literacy in young children with disabilities, early interventionists should provide collaborative, family-centered, evidence-based, and developmentally appropriate support that is based on recommended practices and that results in functional outcomes within the context of naturally occurring learning opportunities. Although there are many resources for promoting literacy for children who are in preschool or who are 5 years old and older who are typically developing, there is relatively little, if any, information about facilitating early literacy in infants and toddlers with disabilities.
Although final regulations for the implementation of IDEIA may not be available until December , early interventionists need information about facilitating emergent literacy now. Because new research and resources are published constantly and the knowledge base is growing at a rapid rate, we urge readers to monitor and review the literature on early and emergent literacy frequently.
Although we have included practices derived from literature on preschool-aged children, we do so cautiously and hesitantly. Ideally, research on infants and toddlers and their families should guide our work with infants and toddlers with disabilities. In their introduction to the chapter on family-based practices in the DEC Recommended Practices guidebook, Trivette and Dunst identify four essential elements of family-centered practices that should guide early interventionists and early childhood special educators as they provide support to the families of children with disabilities:.
Another guiding principle of effective early intervention and family-centered practices is that members of the early intervention team provide collaborative support. Children with motor disabilities may need special positioning or equipment that requires the expertise of physical or occupational therapists. Teachers of children with visual impairments are particularly attuned to the impact of visual impairments on early literacy and on providing access and adaptive materials that are critically important for facilitating emergent literacy.
Orientation and mobility specialists not only help young children orient themselves in their environments and move efficiently from one place to another, but also facilitate concept development that is directly related to communication and emergent literacy. The service coordinator helps families obtain, manage, and monitor early intervention services and is responsible for assuring that the individualized family service plan IFSP is developed, implemented, and monitored.
In his introduction to the chapter on child-focused practices in the DEC Recommended Practices guidebook, Wolery describes recommended practices for child-focused intervention as. For children with multiple disabilities who may need assistive technology to facilitate emergent literacy, we recommend the chapter on technology use and applications introduced by Stremel in the DEC Recommended Practices guidebook.
Specific interventions will be described in detail in Session 5. Play is process oriented, not product oriented. Children learn through the process of playing, not by creating a product or accomplishing a task. Pretend play is particularly important in helping children understand the function, or purpose, of reading and writing. Lawhon and Cobb , p. However, naturally occurring learning opportunities also occur in other ways—through trips to the park or other community-based settings. Routines-based literacy also provides opportunities for children to observe the functional use of reading and writing during day to day routines.
Observing adults engage in literate behaviors gives children literacy-related role models and helps children understand the function of reading and writing. When children interact with adults in literacy activities, they learn from the adults and begin to associate reading and writing activities with enjoyable social interactions. Exploring literacy on their own e. The appropriateness, accessibility, and number of literacy resources, or artifacts, within environments enhance literacy modeling, interactions, and active exploration. Shared storybook reading is evidence based, family centered, child centered, and developmentally appropriate.
Shared storybook reading does not involve direct instruction but provides an opportunity for children to develop a positive attitude about reading while also learning important oral and written language concepts. Storybook reading should occur daily soon after birth so that children have repeated, varied, and enjoyable exposure to literacy.
Throughout childhood, storybook reading should be viewed as an interaction between children, parents, and books rather than as opportunities for parents to teach or drill children. Dialogic reading is a shared-reading technique in which the adult assumes the role of active listener, and the child learns to become a storyteller. In dialogic reading, the adult reader asks questions, adds information, and prompts the child to increase the sophistication of descriptions of material in the book.
Doug, who is familiar with dialogic reading technique and has been trained in the PEER method, is sharing a book about dogs with his 2-year-old son, Jonas, who has bilateral anophthalmia. Doug reaches into the story bag and gets out a ball. What other games can we play with dogs?
It has been used successfully with children of varying ages and abilities within different family settings. Children are given the opportunity to label or describe illustrations of interest, ask questions, and make comments to increase narrative knowledge and vocabulary. During shared storybook reading, caregivers point out rhyming words or initial sounds and encourage children to repeat the words.
Rhyming in songs and poetry and word play facilitates an awareness of sounds in speech Parlakian, Children who are told stories, whether fictional ones or ones based on real-life experiences, gain familiarity with decontextualized language. Decontextualized language refers to the expression of ideas and concepts that are removed from the immediate situation or physical context. For example, a parent who has just come home from work uses decontextualized language to describe what happened at the office earlier in the day.
A fairy tale uses decontextualized language to tell a tale about a boy named Jack, a beanstalk, and a terrible giant. In general, parents, caregivers, and early interventionists should strive to provide infants and toddlers with language and listening opportunities.
Parents should be encouraged to talk to their children—frequently, and on a wide variety of topics. Young children who are exposed to a wide variety of words in meaningful conversation learn new words each day.
Early Emergent Literacy
When adults use a wide variety of colorful, imaginative, and descriptive language, children acquire words and learn their meaning in appropriate contexts. According to Bardige and Segal , children with larger vocabularies as preschoolers become better readers and writers. Although IDEIA requires preliteracy content in individualized family services plans, there are no specific requirements for assessments directly related to emergent literacy. Current level of functioning descriptions of communication and language development may be helpful in identifying possible emergent literacy intervention goals for children.
A review of family priorities, concerns, and resources can also inform intervention planning. Sensory assessments of infants and toddlers with visual impairments will be helpful in describing current levels of visual and sensory functioning and sensory preferences that can help guide intervention. Caregivers are valuable partners in assessment. In addition to involving caregivers as partners and being developmentally appropriate, Neisworth and Bagnato recommend that assessments be.
Functional vision assessments are used to determine how children with visual impairments use their vision in daily activities and in various environments. These assessments are required for children who are eligible for services for children with visual impairments, ages 3 to 21 years, in most states. Most specialized agencies that provide services for infants and toddlers with visual impairments also require functional vision assessments that must be conducted by teachers of children with visual impairments.
Developmentally appropriate learning media assessment DALMA is a systematic process for gathering information about how children with visual impairments use all of their senses. These two measures are included as Handouts G and H. The Individual Sensory Learning Profile Interview ISLPI may be administered to caregivers to identify how children appear to access sensory information under specific circumstances and conditions. The Observational Assessment of Sensory Preferences of Infants and Toddlers OASP provides a framework for observations of children to identify how they use vision across different settings and activities.
The ISLPI and the OASP Anthony, a, b are developmentally appropriate observation tools that can assist team members in understanding how children with visual impairments use sensory information during natural learning opportunities. They guide the team in making informed and deliberate decisions about the range of sensory preferences that will facilitate learning for children with visual impairments. Team members should report the results of ISLPIs and OASPs in objective terms without drawing conclusions about the kinds of symbolic learning media or methods that might best suit the child.
For example, a child who appears to primarily use vision to learn about the world at the time of observation will not necessarily prefer or be most efficient with print, even if the child has learned to appreciate the attributes of pictures, including color, shape, and size. Nor will the child who appears to primarily use the sense of touch necessarily be a braille reader. Caregivers and teachers are also responsible for providing alternative ways for the child to experience and learn information through other senses so that the child can become a more efficient learner by using all senses.
The following assessment tools were not designed for children with visual impairments, but can be readily used by adapting indicators that involve visual references. Use story objects or tactile illustrations to substitute for pictures. Visual references to the storyline should also be avoided. The following three literacy categories are rated through observation of. These behaviors promote literacy development of young children, support caregivers in facilitating literacy, and build literacy partnerships between children and caregivers. Observation of child-caregiver interaction in these areas helps interventionists provide feedback and recommendations to caregivers.
Children with disabilities may not acquire emergent literacy as effortlessly as many typically developing children do. Less responsive caregiving, combined with a lack of awareness of environmental print, may impede the acquisition of emergent literacy skills. Children with disabilities, and children with visual impairments in particular, may not be aware of the books, magazines, and writing tools in their homes.
They may not be tuned in to the literacy activities that their caregivers and family members engage in, such as reading the paper, looking up numbers in phone books, addressing bills, writing checks, reading labels and recipes, etc. Therefore, early interventionists and families must often consciously introduce children to, or mediate, direct experiences that will familiarize children with literacy-related items, tools, and activities. Throughout the Communication and Emergent Literacy module, we have stressed the importance of providing braille for children who may use braille as their primary reading medium.
If young children with visual impairments have access to both print and braille, the primary literacy medium or media should emerge naturally Craig, If children have visual conditions that result in progressive vision loss or that may lead to future vision loss, early exposure to braille and tactile experiences should be considered. Children with disabilities often do not acquire concepts about the world around them as easily and efficiently as do children who are developing typically.
They may not readily grasp cause-and-effect relationships, and they may not be as interested in the world around them—particularly if they cannot see enticing objects, people, and activities. Conceptual knowledge helps children understand the content of stories and conversation and is related to reading comprehension in the second and later grades.
An awareness of the impact of disabilities on emergent literacy should help professionals and families to take a proactive approach to providing individualized activities that will build these skills. Detailed information about interventions to promote emergent literacy is provided in Session 5. Anthony, T. Topor, L. Hatton, Visual conditions and functional vision: Early intervention issues participant packet, pp. Observational assessment of sensory preferences of infants and toddlers OASP.
Armbruster, B. A child becomes a reader: Birth through preschool 2nd ed. Bardige, B. Conversations in child care. Zero to Three, 25 1 , Bennett, K. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17 3 , Coleman, P. Classroom observation checklist for literacy artifacts and events. Clinical Connection, Craig, C. Family support for the emergent literacy of children with visual impairments. DeBruin-Parecki, A. Dodici, B. Early parent-child interactions and early literacy development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, A model of oral and written language development.
Observation and interview of literacy artifacts and events for young children with visual impairments. Erickson, K. All children are ready to learn: An emergent versus readiness perspective in early literacy assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 21, Ferrell, K. Holbrook Ed.